Social Capitalism

What is the Living Income Guaranteed?

Posted on Updated on

Living Income Guaranteed is an economic and political mechanism to ensure the establishment of Fundamental Human Birth Rights of the public through allocating an allowance on a monthly basis to every eligible individual that is currently in a position of being unable to sustain themselves – and/or people in their custody – financially to a level that Human Dignity deserves and that currently lack such support due to reasons beyond their immediate control including – but not limited to – unemployment, lacking access to food, lacking access to housing, lacking access to healthcare, lacking access to education, physical disability, being retired or not old enough to have a job.

This is within the understanding that the existence of poverty and lack of education as the key to have a job and means to live is the result and outflow of the economic system’s malfunction, providing an unfair allocation of National Natural Resources, being unable to support every living individual with sufficient access to fundamental living necessities. The most immediate remedy is to eradicate poverty, through allocating/designating a monthly allowance to those that don’t have access to their fundamental living necessities, thereby empowering them to establish a dignified life, enabling each one to reach their potential, choose a career and contribute to the economy through their skill, labour and purchasing power.

Why is it called Living Income instead of Basic Income?

It is called ‘Living Income’ because it won’t only provide each one with the minimum required to survive, it implies sufficient allowance that is able to cover the fundamental expenses required for a dignified living Why? Because this will enable people to reach their creative potential, return to the job market, become independent from the Living Income and contribute to the progression of the economy.

This means that a Living Income Guaranteed should be provided to all individuals that are currently unable to participate in any economic activity due to the lack of jobs/education/health. However those that don’t participate in any economic activity but do have sufficient money to live due to, for example, family wealth, inheritance or any other regular income won’t qualify nor require the Living Income Guaranteed.

Why is Living Income Guaranteed Not Unconditional?

The reason why it is not given to all people unconditionally is because this would undermine the sustainability of an economic system that does require people to be motivated to educate themselves and work to enable the continuation and functionality of our societies.

That means that people that work won’t get the Living Income Guaranteed?

That’s right, however we Do propose that the Minimum Wage is Doubled (twice the Living Income Allowance), which means that there will be a series of reforms to take place first to make the Living Income Guaranteed a sufficient Allowance granted to cover fundamental living necessities, which is within the context of our current economy More than our current Minimum Wage standards.

This allowance should be sufficient for an individual to have dignified living conditions with guaranteed access to their fundamental human birth rights: Food, Water, Housing, Healthcare, Education, Clothing, Transportation, Public Services, etc.

Now to motivate people to work, the new minimum wage should be Double the Living Income Guaranteed in the most common economic activities which are at the moment associated with retail workers, waiters, cashiers, transportation workers, fast food industries, etc..

So, anyone that genuinely wants to have a top quality lifestyle will not conform to only getting the minimum as the Living Income, but continue educating themselves, developing further skills to make more money and have more financial solvency.

What’s in it for the corporations with implementing the Living Income Guaranteed model?

A broader consumer base. Those that previously had no money to live and as such were not economically active will suddenly become active participants in the economy which will ensure that profit is also broadened for corporations, realizing that if more buyers emerge, there will be more profit that can be used to better the working conditions, to diminish the compulsive production and instead adapt the prices to make things affordable, with great quality and providing a secure and harmonious working base, as well as proceeding to fund the automation of jobs that are currently deteriorating human health.

Workers will feel supported and cared for by their employers, which will result in individuals that no longer feel pressured and enforced to only be a profit-making machine, but will feel happy and content to realize that their work is being truly remunerated and that their time and contribution to the corporation is being valued as the life-time investment it actually is. A well remunerated individual will create a happier and fulfilled society that is no longer afraid of not having sufficient money to feed their family, it will be the beginning of a new era of quality work that dignifies the lives of human beings that genuinely desire to improve their lifestyles.

clip_image002

 

 

Why is the implementation of a Living Income Guaranteed an immediate solution to the economic crisis?

More than a solution to a crisis, it should be understood as the way to guarantee that the Fundamental Human Rights to each individual are properly funded through allocating an Allowance as the access to the necessary things one requires to live in a dignified way – this is within the principle of Giving to others what we would like to receive, and if we want to live in a peaceful society, to have a happy and healthy living condition, we then must give access to this Allowance/Income as a living certainty that will eradicate the need to resort to crime, panhandling, homelessness, lacking education, health care that results in economical regression affecting every individual in society.

It is common sense that if we give an Allowance to every eligible individual to be well nourished, have proper living conditions with the fundamental necessary services, health care and leisure time, more educated beings will emerge from this when realizing that if one is given support as in getting an income to cover one’s living necessities, one learns how to give back to society too. This will be understood as a living principle that applies to every living being on Earth beyond any political, social, religious or ideological affiliation. We’re talking about physical living necessities that all human beings require to live in a dignified and sustainable way.

On top of this, many jobs are being replaced by the rise of the machine, which will require more restructuring processes in our economy to finally upgrade the premise of being able to ‘make a living by having a job’ because if jobs are currently not available to all – regardless of having college degrees and necessary skills to have one – then it is certain that a new understanding of our economy should be grasped as supportive mechanism for all individuals rather than a restrictive and coercive one.

In the past, long-term policies and treaties have attempted to benefit the working class over time, and it has proven to be inefficient for the tightening policies implemented by corporations as well as the economic outflows have deviated their effectiveness. This is how through a direct intervention to provide the Living Income as an Allowance and doubling of the minimum wage, we are directing the problem at the root, instead of expecting third party actors and policies to solve the situation throughout time.

Will the Living Income Guaranteed undermine competition and as such create economic stagnation in society?

Not at all, actually it’s the other way around. If we define competition as the ability achieve the best living condition in a society, by allocating Allowance to every eligible individual that previously had no access to it, we assure the activation of the economy and impulse people to work if they do want to have a greater economic solvency to cover other consumer desires for extra commodities that are not able to be paid for with the Living Income Guaranteed. Also, there is no limit to how much money you or corporations can make as long as their businesses do not interfere in any way with the nationalization of natural resources or fundamental public services – that is the condition. That means that the rules of a free market still apply and as such, the only constitutional and governmental management will be to supervise the implementation of the Living Income Guaranteed, as well as conducting the usual maintenance, management and provision of public goods and the justice department.

The more you prepare yourself, the better work you’ll have, the more benefits which means you will earn more money as well. Competition means bettering oneself to perform a certain activity the best way one can and this is an essential part of human nature  that has kept our societies remaining competitive, innovative and creative  at a local and global level.

You will also be able to truly have free choice on which work is best for you instead of engaging in working contracts based on need rather than preference or choice. This is the way to implement a real ethical environment at work too, where no more exploitation occurs since any job won’t be the result of a need to work in order to survive, but rather become a means and incentive to increase the quality of life. 

How will it be funded?

Through the nationalization of resources , banks and basic services which means that if, for example, your oil, gas, water, electricity, telecommunications ,transportation is defined as patrimony of the people, the profit that comes from the consumption/purchase of such goods and services should be sufficient to fund the Living Income Guaranteed for eligible individuals. This means there will be no need to have personal taxation but instead keep the VAT (Value Added Tax) as it is to continue funding the functions of the government – this is also within the consideration that as the purchasing power increases and consumer base broadens, the funds coming from VAT will also increase creating more solvency in governmental budget as well, which translates to higher quality public welfare.

Thus with the Living Income Guaranteed there is one thing that is of vital importance: no one in the system, no citizen will pay tax – all tax will be facilitated by either value added tax or sales tax or import duties. If you have a government system that is responsible because you have a system where each one is functioning effectively within the system, you do not need excessive tax; your tax is spent on things like roadwork, transport facilitation – all things that can be handled ‘in house’.

One of the things that can work quite effectively also in a country is to have a toll tax on the roads which are managed by the government and that keeps the roads in place, so according to the use that one has of a road = will be the amount of tax you pay, but there will be in this proposal no income tax, so nobody is going to pay for anyone’s Living Income Guaranteed, it’s coming from the resource companies which everybody in the country are participating in and your sales tax or your value added tax will be according to the amount of your participation within a particular system – this is a fair way of dealing with government tax collection.

This is how the distribution of wealth and profits is expanded onto those that would have no benefit from the commercialization of natural resources and basic services, and due to the constant consumption and requirement of these, it is ensured that the foundation of the Living Income Guaranteed will always remain sustainable and have sufficient funds to cover the beneficiaries’ expenses.

Another example is how through stopping allocating money to fund wars, the trillions of dollars that are spent in the warfare industry can be designated to revitalize the economy through funding the Living Income Guaranteed and supporting the health care, education, commerce, production industries and basic services that require to be improved at home.

Will Public Services also be Nationalized?

Health care, education, water, electricity, telecommunications, media, banks will also be nationalized. Each country will have to assess their available resources in order for the government to make sufficient profit to fund the Living Income Guaranteed.

How can we implement the Living Income Guaranteed?

Through a political proposal, through existing or new political parties that have this mechanism as their key card to gain the majority vote to have our Fundamental Human Rights guaranteed through the Living Income Guaranteed. This means that the right to a Living Income must be granted on a constitutional basis – this is a national-based system constituted at a political level and able to be voted on within a democratic process based on the principle of one man, one vote.

LIG Hong Kong

 

Living Income Guaranteed with Labor as Interest

Posted on Updated on

With the nationalization of banks within the Basic Income Guaranteed and the eradication of interest on money, the money supply will grow as a function of labor. The labor has a capital value that will increase the money supply. This has been effectively used by the Germans where they made labor one of the foundations of their economic system. And within the Basic Income Guaranteed where you have a basic income for all your basic needs and you have a guaranteed minimum wage that is double the Basic Income Guaranteed, your labor value will be predetermined as part of every product and service produced.

This means that the input of your labor as value is reflected and revealed within the price of goods and services. This way each person will understand that part of the price is another person’s livelihood, and that as you give = you will receive. Labor then becomes part of the economic value system, part of the production cost – which must be valued sufficiently to be able to support the laborer.

Labor is the action of the human with a measurable value which will be like the accumulation of interest and you’ll have a compound interest effect, which will have the effect of an ever expanding economy, ensuring that everyone in the country has sufficient support to have a dignified life. This is a fascinating point that economists should have adopted long ago, but unfortunately labor has been demonized instead of realizing that that is the actual only real interest that can exist within a system based on money.

Equal Life Foundation Research Team

Basic Income Guaranteed with Labor as Interest

Living Income Guarantees Business Profits

Posted on Updated on

For the Basic Income Guaranteed to work we require an economic model that must be efficient to follow very specific regulations. Just as one would regulate food and certify it for instance as ‘safe for consumption,’ we have to apply the same principle and certify businesses as ‘safe for the economy’. Within this, one will have to establish ways to ensure that businesses are not built on the ideology of competition but rather on the principle of profit and of quality.

Therefore pricing will have to be certified to be sufficient and effective to ensure the minimum wage at least, is paid to the employees, the business owner makes a profit and the resources bought are paid for at a price that ensures such profit. We have to also ensure that the business is compliant and the movement of sales tax/ value added tax is efficient so that both the government and the Basic Income Guaranteed is effective; and then the consumer will be able to buy from businesses that ensure a good quality product, knowing that they are participating in an economic system that is taking care of each one’s individual dignified living with Basic Income Guaranteed. Doing this will also ensure that things like poverty, debt and the many psychological issues that develop because of stress around money, start to disappear from society.

This also implies that the true supply and demand will be based on quality and preference wherein the necessary research should be done and facilitated before one brings out a new product on the market. This is the part where psychology and public relations also play a role to ensure the person assesses the product as something that they possibly may be interested in acquiring; this ensures you’re not wasting resources on a ‘potentially successful’ product, and instead you secure your investment once you have your market analysis results,  an effective presentation of a product that will have an assured market with sufficient demand which you will supply – so it is demand first, then supply.

Thus a clearly defined and estimated market share is established and cross-referenced according to the income levels available. This means assessing whether the available amount of money that is in the consumer’s budget is in fact realistic so that the business can work effectively. This is how one will ensure profit and sustainability instead of investing on opening businesses that are guaranteed to fail, just because the proper research was not done prior to running it. This effective business planning will ensure that sufficient profit is made as well as providing a good rate of success that will satisfy the business and the population in an equal manner: everybody wins!

Equal Life Foundation Research Team

 

Also on this topic: Basic Income Guaranteed and Business Transparency

 

Basic Income Guarantees Business Profits

Living Income Guaranteed and Human Rights

Posted on Updated on

 

Why are the Human Rights of every person on Earth not protected? If one takes this to the level of a parent, every parent wants for their children the best future in this world. With the current application and the implication of the way that our current system functions, it is more based on luck than on the fact that one has a birth right as a human on Earth to have a decent life with basic needs fulfilled. No one that currently has got these needs fulfilled would like to give it up and live in the conditions of those that do not have Human Rights in this polarized system between haves and have not’s.

With the Basic Income Guaranteed – which is in a way positive capitalism – this problem can be resolved and a lot of unnecessary discord and wars on Earth can come to an end because we have a system that works. War has only become an easy way for the few elites to make a lot of money, utilizing people living in poverty through paying them a pittance for their patriotism to go out there and kill people. And all of this just to support an arms industry that is in its very nature of existence a violation of Human Rights in every way.

We suggest that it is important to investigate what Human Rights are for you and then to have a look if you have them. If you are lucky enough to have them, then also investigate if everybody has got them as well and if they don’t: we have the responsibility to ensure that they get them. If we are not willing to live the lives of those in poverty, then why should we keep others refrained from their right to have a dignified living? Currently we’re living in a modern day holocaust wherein capitalism and elitism have become part of our individual ideology in which we haven’t learned to care for anyone else but ourselves and where we use money as a dividing line between having Human Rights and not having Human Rights, accepting it as ‘how the world works.’

Through the correct use of democracy, there is going to be a change in the system and once we all realize that we can use politics to bring about a change, we can use democracy as the majority rule to bring about a change that is best for all. Within this there are also going to be consequences, because the violation of Human Rights will certainly be investigated – even only in a way like what happened in South Africa after the apartheid era, a forgiveness tribunal was established where what really happened was exposed, so that we all can learn from it and prevent it from ever happening again.

We suggest that we all get involved now, let’s realize that there is a change in the awareness of the human being wherein slowly but surely, we are all having the realization that we’ve been taken for a ride through propaganda and through manipulation of the mind, which is a necessary and inevitable step to finally take the veil off our eyes. Rather than waiting until it happens – which will place one squarely in a position where you may be perceived to have been part of the violation of Human Rights – we suggest to act now and take action. It’s going to take a lot of education and it’s going to take a lot of effort to help those that are stuck, which are the people with money – the rest have been stuck because they don’t have money and they have to focus on always getting money to survive day by day –  but something is certain: this will not continue the way it exists now.

Ask yourself the BIG question: why is it that everyone on Earth does not have Equal Human Rights? Why is it that Human Rights have become a commodity that can be bought with money?

Equal Life Foundation Research Team

Basic Income Guaranteed - Human Rights are Not Optional

Living Income Guaranteed and Commodity Pricing

Posted on Updated on

The theories about free market suggest that supply and demand determine the price and that apparently there is a ‘market force’ that is determining at the end of the day who will be wealthy and who will be poor. The odds – if you know from playing Monopoly – are that ‘he who has the money will be wealthy because they will get more’. This is happening very effectively with commodity pricing, because the future’s market and the establishment of pricing through this common oddity instead of common sense – for example, determining the price of food this way like in a giant casino – is certainly not a way for any competent government that represents citizens to enable feeding its people.

Take for instance food in a capitalistic world where labor is a capital and your food is a capital, and the seat of your government is a capital and the money you have is a capital: the creation of food and feeding one’s citizens and then making available the surplus in the open markets is the way it should function. Where the establishment of food prices is based on the labor input and the cost input and the historical growth in value through the accumulated effort of the human’s participation on Earth. These are the aspects that must be part of the pricing system to ensure that those people have no need for a Basic Income, because there is sufficient profit for those involved in creating the food to make a decent living, to pay the farm laborers properly so that they can do their work with a loving heart and not because they are forced to do it because they have no other means to make a living.

Imagine! all the people that are into the ideas of ‘consciousness’ for instance, already have this inclination that ‘the hands that touch things have an influence on its constitution’. This would imply that if your food is produced by poor people desperate to make a living that are not getting enough money, constantly experiencing anger, anxiety and fear = that would be transferred to our food and because we accept that as ‘okay,’ we accept the consequence of this form of production as ‘okay’ and as such, we accept the consequence of placing this in our body as ‘okay’ without realizing and understanding how is it that within this we contribute and participate in creating more disease on Earth.

Within the commodities’ markets, food pricing and the giant casino, those that make profits do not care about this because they can create another health product to sell and place on the markets, continuing the cycle of supply and demand which results in forced labor and economic slavery.

With Basic Income Guaranteed we suggest that we start looking at the real science, not only the genetic modification that is attempted to be controlled through patents and influencing the food supply to influence the palate of the population and have control over it and thus control over price. Price control in Basic Income Guaranteed is not a matter of control, it’s a matter of common sense: if the labor part of the food production is not healthy = the food cannot be healthy as the investigation into water crystals by Masaru Emoto indicated – and then it cannot produce a healthy society because the pricing isn’t healthy, the capitalistic system isn’t healthy, there is not enough money moving and your debt will increase! And then, because you are creating the system through a form of conflict, the only way you can then save the system is through conflict. Capitalism throughout time has been proven to ‘need war’ to continue existing and regenerate the economy, to create jobs and to create money for a minority.

Commodity markets and open markets need a new definition where a country produces a particular commodity, it first supplies its own citizens and the surplus – which can be determined as to what is needed in the world, just as it is done with oil – can be sold to all the other countries that need a particular commodity so that they can have access to it on the open market at a price that does not cause poverty and starvation, but that enhances the global economy.

Labor has lost all capital value which means if your labor is worth nothing = you have no power with which to ensure your wellbeing financially, health-wise and in all ways of your own family – and then a country is not able to support its citizens through proper government. And here the capitalist, the wealthy person needs to understand the simplicity of the Basic Income Guaranteed. If you have citizens that have more money to spend and you only have a system that focuses on competition based on pricing, will cause less money to flow. Therefore we propose that competition is based on value, technology and effectiveness.

If one competes on things that are genuinely valuable like a better warranty, better quality product or a unique and innovative product, it is a healthy use of competition that doesn’t cause harm: it enhances the product. But to compete based on price alone, claiming that global prices are going to be ‘good for the citizens’ while the quality of the products is dropping all the time indicates that there’s something really wrong in our reasoning! Because the evidence is very clear that this is not how reality works. The very fact that this is even allowed and not seen as treason because of the way it harms the citizen = that is even more revealing to what extent we are not yet aware of how we have caused our own crisis and demise.

How labor loses capital value with lower commodity pricing and that lower prices create job loss, unemployment and starvation, should be part of our common sensical understanding of the economy. Yet, do you see any of this in the news? Do our journalists actually even comprehend the fact that they are not actually reporting the root and cause of the problems we hear and read about every day? This is a massive problem when we fail to see how it is through our common acceptance of economic inequality that we then accept every single problem and consequential outflow that stems from failing to support every single individual to live in the best possible sustainable manner.

The facts are that if the labor that is put into the production of something like food is not compensated effectively in and through the price, and if the distribution is not compensated and all participants within the creation of the food process are not compensated properly = then we are creating poverty through producing food.

How have we created poverty? We have food at a lower price which means less tax = which means a weaker social service = which means there is not enough money to support all the citizens – this is why we end up with revolutions – Why would we do that deliberately, unless it is that we don’t even understand – after our so called evolution – that we are actually creating the problem with ideologies like a ‘free market forces’ and ‘supply and demand.’

Supply and demand is very simple, it should be based on: What is the supply? Is there enough food for everyone? Which means that the demand is how much we need, what’s the surplus and whether the profit made from it actually supports everyone that is involved in the production process to make a decent living – this is what supply and demand is in a practical civil way. The ways that are currently used are downright counterproductive and detrimental to our global economy.

If you can see within integrity and common sense the problem that we are presenting here, then support a solution that is real: educate yourself, step out of your self-interest and realize that we must work together as one within a democracy to bring about real change.

Equal Life Foundation Research Team

Basic Income Guaranteed and Commodity Pricing

Living Income Guaranteed and Property Ownership

Posted on Updated on

Basic Income Guaranteed is particularly focused on those situations where a person is not in a position to have sufficient income to be able to participate as an equal within society through spending, purchasing, ensuring the basic needs required for a human to exist. There are conditions where a Basic Income Guaranteed is not required meaning that those that have = do not qualify for a Basic Income Guaranteed which is destined to ensure that there is enough income available to support those when in trouble, or when society is not yet able to produce sufficient jobs.

One of the foundations of capitalism is owning property, but also one of the foundations of capitalism is having a society that is able to consume because they have the means with which to do so, and this is why it is suggested that a balance must be struck.

The basic regulation would be that if you have more than one house you’re owning = you do not qualify for a Basic Income Guaranteed because you are able – due to your property value – to sustain yourself or at the very least, you’ll have to sell one of the properties and then if you do not have employment, you’ll be able to qualify for a Basic Income Guaranteed.

Another point is Investments. If you are able to sustain yourself through your investments – that means you have money somewhere in some form = you won’t need such investments any longer, because the Basic Income Guaranteed will also act as a pension. Eventually, a mechanism will have to be established to see at which level investment would be sufficient so that you are no longer dependent on the Basic Income Guaranteed and you are able to sustain yourself. Therefore savings or investments from the perspective of it creating sufficient wealth for you to sustain yourself will automatically place you in a position where you do not require a Basic Income Guaranteed, because you are able to financially sustain yourself.

Capital growth is thus one of the points that will be promoted within a Basic Income Guaranteed system because it will eventually create a situation where one will be able to be financially self-sustained, and the objective is to get each human to be financially self-sustained so that you are no longer dependent on your social systems – pension plans, insurance, loans, investments – as well as acquiring the skill to use capital in a way that you actually are able to sustain your existence. Then capitalism will become a functional system that benefits everyone with this necessary support when needed and a necessary responsibility when your Basic Income Guaranteed is no longer required. This also places one within the self-development mindset that capitalism represents where you specifically acquire skills to eventually free yourself from the needed support, because you have been able to create for yourself a self-support system. Within your hierarchy of needs this would mean that you have achieved a level of self-fulfillment, thus a higher level of living within responsibility.

The psychological benefit one can find within capitalism will be worthwhile as it is structured practically within this reality, you do not have the stress that comes if you get to fail in your endeavor and you have nowhere to go, because there will be support. And as we have noticed within capitalism, one tends to fail the first few times because you haven’t got the skills yet and the experience, although that should be developed also within the education system so that failure is limited to the minimum, because failure means resources get wasted and when resources get wasted: it becomes more difficult to have a sustainable balanced system.

Equal Life Foundation Research Team

 

 Basic Income Guaranteed and Property Ownership

Living Income Guaranteed and Oil

Posted on Updated on

Oil falls under the resource identity that is required by all as a national resource. Therefore the suggestion is that the total oil industry gets nationalized and oil becomes that which facilitates both the Basic Income Guaranteed and the economic growth with the price kept stable so that the profit is sustainable to support the citizens of a country. The countries that don’t have access to oil or gas are supported through agreements that makes it possible for them to also facilitate a Basic Income Guaranteed and for their economy to be stable, so that there is a stable international trade where people and countries can exchange goods for fair value. This implies that if one country produces more of a particular product than another, it is then distributed worldwide to be available for all citizens of the world, because the production of goods that is dependent on the Earth directly – like food and raw materials – should be able to be distributed in an effective way where the profit as such is directed towards supporting citizens specifically.

Capitalism in terms of where one will then come up with ingenuity to produce something extraordinary that people pay more for, should be based on enhancing the lifestyle on Earth, these are the products based on taking raw materials and creating something out of it. The point of some benefiting from raw materials just because they apparently ‘own the land’ throughout generations – which in all cases if one investigates it, it was always taken from someone that owned it before, and those were normally your natural people that lived in a particular area – is simply not acceptable because that has caused poverty and in fact, anything that is done in a way to limit the distribution of resources to the benefit of the citizens of a country is an act of treason against the nation and the citizens; because the government at the end of the day is that which represents the citizens and anything that is done to harm citizens = is there to harm government which is indirectly citizens and so is a form of treason – that is unacceptable.

Our definition of what is legitimate and what is criminal needs to be sorted out so that we can move forward in a stable world and stop all this abuse that takes place all in the name of control and profit.

There are simple solutions to these problems and there are easy and effective ways with which all people in the world can be supported in a very quick manner. The situation in the world is worsening extensively where businesses will get into trouble a lot quicker; there are big problems on the horizon and many can experience it first-hand. The global recession is going to deepen and get much worse, so action needs to be taken now and within a short few years, one can have a new system in place which only requires one thing from each human: a change of mind, a change of heart, to open your heart to also consider other people one and equal as yourself.

Equal Life Foundation Research Team

Basic Income Guaranteed and Oil